Mediterranean Ingredients Glossary

Welcome to our Mediterranean ingredients glossary! If you’ve ever found yourself intrigued by the unique ingredients listed on our menu, this is your guide. Here, we unravel the mysteries of Mediterranean cuisine, providing detailed insights into the flavors that make our dishes so delightful. So, whether you’re a food connoisseur or a curious diner, explore our glossary to discover more about the rich, vibrant ingredients that are integral to our culinary journey at Gallio.

Wild Mushroom Hummus Gallio Mediterranean Restaurant London

Table of Contents


Ancient grains bread incorporates grains like spelt, emmer, and einkorn that have been cultivated for thousands of years, offering a traditional, wholesome alternative to modern wheat bread.

Farro is a nutritious ancient grain with a nutty, chewy texture, rich in protein, fibre, and essential nutrients. It’s a versatile addition to many recipes.

Pilaf is a flavourful rice dish, often made with various seasonings, vegetables, and meats, cooked together to create a fragrant, one-pot meal enjoyed in many cuisines around the world.

A staple North African dish made from steamed semolina wheat granules, often served with a flavourful stew of vegetables and meat, such as lamb or chicken.


The origins of pizza are thought to be outside of Italy and can be traced to the Middle East and Persia. While Italian pizza is well-known, the concept of flatbreads with various toppings existed in ancient Middle Eastern and Persian cultures long before pizza as we know it today. The Persian soldiers, for example, are said to have baked flatbreads on their shields and topped them with local ingredients

Flatbread, a simple unleavened bread, has ancient origins and has been a part of diverse culinary traditions around the world, including India, the Middle East, and North Africa

Pita bread, a round, pocket-like flatbread, has its origins in the Middle East and Mediterranean, where it has been a staple for centuries.

Gallio Mediterranean Restaurant London Chef Making Pizza Experts in Dough Catering Events
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A gyro is a Greek sandwich made with slices of seasoned meat, typically lamb, beef, or chicken, served in pita bread with various toppings and sauces.

While not a traditional sandwich, more like an open style bread, pide is a boat-shaped Turkish flatbread filled with various toppings, somewhat resembling a pizza.

Khobez bread, is a type of flatbread commonly consumed in Middle Eastern and North African cuisines, often used for scooping up dips, wrapping around fillings, or serving with various dishes.

Bazlama is a traditional Turkish flatbread, similar to pita, known for its soft, fluffy texture and versatility in Turkish cuisine.

Gozleme is a traditional Turkish flatbread stuffed with various fillings, such as spinach, cheese, or minced meat, and then folded and cooked on a griddle or over an open flame.

Borek is a pastry dish in Turkish cuisine consisting of thin layers of dough filled with various ingredients, such as cheese, spinach, or minced meat, and typically baked to a golden brown.

Hawawshi is an Egyptian street food dish made by stuffing pita bread with a mixture of minced meat, spices, and herbs, and then baking or grilling it to create a savory, spiced sandwich.

Ingredients & Spices

Olive oil is a type of vegetable oil extracted from olives, widely used in cooking, salads, and various culinary applications for its distinct flavour and health benefits.

Za’atar, a Middle Eastern spice blend, combines za’atar herb, sesame seeds, and sumac, offering earthy, nutty, and citrusy flavours. It’s versatile, used on bread, vegetables, or meats, varying by region.

Tahini, a creamy paste made from ground sesame seeds, adds a nutty, slightly bitter flavour to dishes. It’s a staple in Mediterranean cuisines, used in hummus, dressings, and more.

Sumac, a Mediterranean spice, provides a tangy, lemon-like flavour. It brightens grilled meats, fish, salads, and sauces.


Rose Harissa, a condiment from the Maghreb region, combines rehydrated hot chili peppers, rose petals, and various spices, adding a smoky, spicy, and aromatic kick to dishes.

Piquillo peppers, native to Northern Spain, offer sweet, mildly spicy, smoky flavours. Their unique shape makes them perfect for roasting and stuffing.


Aioli, a garlic and olive oil sauce, can include egg yolks or lemon juice. It’s used as a dip, condiment, or in various Mediterranean dishes.


Gallio Mediterranean Restaurant Supper Club London

Dairy & Cheese

Mozzarella is a mild, fresh cheese known for its stretchy texture, often used in Italian dishes.

Feta is a tangy, salty Greek cheese, versatile in salads, pastries, and more.

Halloumi is a grill-able cheese from Cyprus, known for its distinctive texture and savoury flavour

Buffalo Mozzarella is a soft Italian cheese with a milky flavour, commonly used in Caprese salad and on pizzas.


Fontina is a semi-soft, creamy cheese with a nutty, earthy flavour, popular in fondues and Italian cuisine.

Blue cheese is a pungent, creamy cheese with distinctive blue veins and a strong, tangy taste.


Hard cheese is a firm, aged cheese with a dense texture and a sharp, savoury flavour, commonly used for grating and snacking.



Parmesan is a hard, aged Italian cheese with a rich, nutty flavour, commonly grated over pasta dishes.

Grana Padano is another hard, Italian cheese, similar to Parmesan, known for its sharp, savoury taste and widespread use in cooking and grating

Labneh a creamy, tangy yogurt cheese commonly found in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, made by straining yogurt to remove excess whey, resulting in a thick, spreadable consistency.


A type of yogurt that is strained to remove more whey, resulting in a thicker, creamier texture and a slightly tangier taste compared to regular yogurt.

Gallio Mediterranean Restaurant London Ancient Grain Tomato Margarita Pizza

Meat & Seafood

King Scallop

Merguez sausage is a spicy, bold sausage from North Africa, often made from lamb or beef.


Nduja is a spicy, spreadable Italian sausage with a fiery kick and smoky notes.

Chorizo is a highly seasoned and spicy sausage commonly made from pork, flavored with paprika and other spices, often used in Spanish and Mexican cuisine.

Kofte, a popular dish in Mediterranean cuisine, originated in Turkey and consists of ground meat mixed with herbs and spices, shaped into balls or patties, and cooked in various ways.


Sujuk is a spicy, dry, and highly seasoned sausage typically made from beef or lamb, originating from the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, including countries like Turkey and Lebanon.

Shawarma is a Middle Eastern dish made by stacking seasoned cuts of meat, such as beef, chicken, or lamb, on a vertical rotisserie and slow-cooking them as the outer layers are shaved off and served in flatbread or pita with various accompaniments.



A scallop is a type of edible bivalve mollusk with a sweet, delicate, and tender flesh, often served as seafood.




A wild mushroom is a mushroom species that grows naturally in the wild, typically differing from cultivated or store-bought mushrooms in terms of species diversity, flavour, and texture.

Heritage tomatoes are open-pollinated, diverse in colour and flavour, passed down through generations, and prized for their unique characteristics.


Olives are grown in sunny climates and are rich in mono-un-saturated fats, which contribute to their heart-healthy benefits and are a key component of the Mediterranean diet.

Originating from Aleppo, Syria, Aleppo peppers are unique in Mediterranean cuisine. These mild, sun-dried chilli flakes offer a tangy, slightly fruity flavour. They enhance various dishes, making them essential for Mediterranean cooking.


Tenderstem broccoli is a hybrid variety characterised by long, slender stems and smaller florets, offering a milder, sweeter flavour and a more delicate texture compared to traditional broccoli.

Heritage Tomato Salad

Speciality Dishes

Spiced Lamb Hummus Gallio Mediterranean Restaurant London

Koshari is an Egyptian dish made from a mixture of lentils, rice, macaroni, and fried onions, often topped with a spicy tomato sauce, providing a hearty and flavourful vegetarian meal.

A slow-cooked stew prepared in a traditional clay pot, known as a tagine, with a combination of meat (typically lamb or chicken), vegetables, and aromatic spices.

A hearty soup, often served during Ramadan, made from tomatoes, lentils, chickpeas, and various spices, including cumin and coriander.


Hummus is a creamy Middle Eastern dip or spread made from blended chickpeas, tahini, lemon juice, and garlic, often seasoned with olive oil and various spices, known for its rich, nutty flavour.


Tzatziki is a creamy Greek sauce made from yogurt, cucumbers, garlic, and herbs, known for its cool and refreshing flavor, commonly used as a condiment or dip.


A sweet, dairy-based dessert made from rosewater-scented milk pudding, often topped with a fragrant rose syrup and garnished with chopped pistachios and coconut.



Tabbouleh is a refreshing Mediterranean salad made with finely chopped parsley, bulgur wheat, diced tomatoes, and seasoned with ingredients like lemon juice and olive oil, offering a vibrant, herby taste.



Falafel, a Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dish, consists of deep-fried chickpea or fava bean patties with herbs and spices. It’s a versatile, protein-rich delight.

Loukoumades are Greek honey puffs, crispy on the outside and soft inside. They’re drizzled with honey and topped with cinnamon and nuts.

A smoky dip made from roasted eggplant, tahini, garlic, lemon juice, and olive oil, typically served with pita bread.


Is a Middle Eastern dip or sauce made from red bell peppers, ground walnuts, breadcrumbs, pomegranate molasses, and various spices, offering a slightly sweet and spicy flavor.


Baklava is a sweet, layered pastry made of thin sheets of phyllo dough, filled with chopped nuts, and sweetened with syrup or honey, creating a rich, flaky dessert often associated with Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines.

Shakshuka is a North African and Middle Eastern dish featuring poached eggs in a spiced tomato and pepper sauce.

Turkish eggs are poached eggs on yogurt with a spiced butter sauce, garnished with herbs and served with bread.


Shashuka with Avocado Gallio Breakfast Brunch Menu Restaurant Canary Wharf London